Cyperus L. – Monograph


Order: Poales Small (APG IV); Cyperales Hutch. (Cronquist)
Family: Cyperaceae Juss.
Subfamily: Cyperoideae
Tribe: Cypereae


Cyperus L. is a large plant genus which, according to World Flora Online, includes about one thousand different species [WFO].

Among these, well known plants are the papyrus (C. papyrus L.) and the umbrella papyrus (Cyperus alternifolius L.).

C. rotundus L. is known both for its invasiveness and for its use in herbal medicine, while C. esculentus L. is known as a source of edible tuberlets.


Cyperus rotundus L.

Syn.: Cyperus olivaris O.Targ.Tozz.


Primary functionality:


Secondary functionality:



Hot and dry (between the second and the third degree)


Pungent, aromatic, bitter and slightly sweet


Digestive system, circulatory system, female reproductive organs; entering meridians (TCM): Liver, San Jiao, Gallbladder, (Stomach)

Humoral actions1:

Resolve tension stagnation and deficiency, supplement phlegm and blood, eliminate perverted humors (heat, toxic heat, thickened and/or accumulated phlegm, perverted melancholy)

Clinical actions:

Alterative, analeptic, analgesic, anthelminthic, antidepressant, antidiarrheal, antidysenteric, anti-inflammatory, anti-itching, antipyretic, antirheumatic, antispasmodic, astringent, carminative, cicatrizing, deobstruent, desiccative, diaphoretic, digestant (digests undigested material), digestive (increases the digestive power), diuretic, emmenagogue, galactagogue, hypotensive, lithontryptic, nootropic, orexigenic, stimulant, stomachic, thirst reliever, tonic (brain, heart, nervous system, stomach), vasodilator, vermicide, vulnerary

Used parts:




Also called purple nutsedge or red nutsedge, the plant is considered the world’s most invasive weed. Luckily, enough, it is also one of the most important drugs in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicines.

According to Pliny, “the roots of Cyperus, which are in great use, have the virtue of heating and drying without any mordacity. And therefore they are wonderfully beneficial to [those] ulcers which, being too moist, heal with difficulty: to which they are very suitable, for having a certain astringency. Which is the reason why they are also convenient for the orifices of mouth ulcers. In addition, it can certainly be confirmed that they also be somewhat incisive, since they help the stone, and cause menstruation and urine.” (see [Mattioli]).

In Morocco, the tubers, like iris rhizomes, are used, mixed with food, for their analeptic property: they are indicated for weaklings, asthenics, convalescents and women who want to gain weight. They are also fed to students in order to improve their memory and boost their intelligence. [Bellakhdar]

According to Ayurveda, the rasa (taste) of C. rotundus (called musta, mustaka, bhadramusta, motha, mutha, and also nagarmotha or nagarmusta2) is classified as katu (pungent), tikta (bitter) and kashaya (astringent); its guna (properties) are laghu (light) and ruksha (dry), and its virya (potency) is sita (cold). The vipaka (taste after digestion) is katu (pungent). This drug reduces kapha and pitta, increases the digestive fire and digests undigested material (ama) [Frawley, Tyagi, Venkatasubramanian]. When taken in excess, it may increase vata [Frawley].

The Ayurvedic text Charaka Samhita categorizes musta under the “lekhaniya and medohara gana,” that is remedies that are reputed able to counter obesity and high cholesterol, helping expel excess fat and kapha from the body. Some studies confirm this effect of the herb. [CureJoy]

Musta is considered one of the most important herbs for treating female disorders because it relieves menstrual pain and dispels premenstrual congestion of blood and water. It is one of the most effective menstrual regulators [Frawley, Nalini], and is particularly good for the emotional problems of PMS, i.e. depression or irritability. [Frawley]

It is also one of the best digestive stimulants for pitta constitution and an effective stimulant for the liver. It improves absorption in the small intestine and thereby stops diarrhea, while at the same time helping to destroy parasites. It may be helpful in candida infections. It is effective in chronic fevers and for promoting digestion in such conditions as gastritis. With ginger and honey it is a good all-purpose medicine for improving digestion. [Frawley]

Franz Vermeulen, citing [Sala], reports: “The tubers are bitter, acrid, astringent, cooling, anti-inflammatory, galactagogue, depurative, intellect promoting, nervine tonic, digestive, carminative, anthelmintic, stomachic, constipating, diuretic, lithotriptic [dissolving stones], expectorant, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, vulnerary, febrifuge, anti-periodic [anti-malaria] and tonic; and are useful for hyperdipsia [intense thirst], inflammations, agalactia, leprosy, skin diseases, scabies, erysipelas, pruritus, dementia, neurasthenia, epilepsy, anorexia, dyspepsia, flatulence, colic, verminosis, diarrhoea, dysentery, strangury, renal and vesical calculi, cough, bronchitis, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, wounds, ulcers, fever, intermittent and malarial fevers, vomiting, ophthalmia and general debility.” [Vermeulen]

According to Chinese Medicine, C. rotundus rhizome (called Xiang Fu) is one of the herbs that regulate Qi. Some authors consider it the primary Qi regulating herb of Chinese Medicine [ITMOnline].

Jiao Shu-De writes: “Acrid and slightly bitter in flavor and neutral in nature, xiāng fù (cyperus) is the most commonly used qì-rectifying and depression-opening medicinal. It is diffusing in nature and is able to free the qì aspect of the twelve channels and eight vessels. In older literature, it was said to ‘govern all qì,’ resolve the six depressions (qì depression, blood depression, phlegm depression, food depression, damp depression, and fire depression)3, and regulate menstruation.

[…] Xiāng fù is aromatic, acrid, and dissipating. It regulates qì, soothes the liver, and resolves depression. It treats liver qì depression due to inhibited emotions, which manifests in abdominal fullness and distention, rib-side distention and pain, no pleasure in eating, and oppression in the chest with a liking for long exhalation.

[…] Xiāng fù (cyperus) moves qì and frees stagnation; when there is free flow, there is no pain. Xiāng fù is most commonly used for qì stagnation and stomach pain (stomach pain caused by anger, or stomach pain exacerbated by bad moods, with rib-side distention and pain, and stringlike pulse, etc.).

[…] Because xiāng fù is a qì moving medicinal that can also enter the blood aspect, it is traditionally called a ‘qì-in-blood medicinal’ (that is, a qì-moving medicinal that enters the blood aspect). It rectifies qì and regulates menstruation (adjusts the menstrual cycle), and it is effective for signs such as menstrual irregularities, overdue periods, and abdominal pain during menstruation that are due to liver qì depression in emotionally inhibited women.

[…] Xiāng fù (cyperus) also conducts blood-supplementing medicinals to the qì aspect in order to engender blood. It is used in combination with other medicinals to treat any antepartum or postpartum pathocondition, and for this reason it is traditionally said to be ‘an important women’s medicinal.’” [Shu-De]

C. rotundus is used to disperse and spread stagnant Liver and Stomach Qi and relieve depression in case of:

  • Liver Qi stagnation with hypochondriac pain and epigastric distention
  • disharmony between the Liver and spleen

and to adjust menstruation and alleviate pain in case of gynecological disorders due to Liver Qi stagnation with dysmenorrhea or irregular menstruation. [AmDragon, Li Wei]

It is indicated for:

  • problems involving emotional stagnation (irritability),
  • distension and fullness in the stomach and abdomen, distension and pain in the hypochondrium due to binding depression of Liver Qi, distension and pain in the breasts due to Liver depression and Qi stagnation,
  • menstrual problems (best when there is scanty bleeding),
  • cold Shan disorders4. [AmDragon, Li Wei]

This herb is also said to treat melancholy. Moreover, C. rotundus is one of the most commonly used analgesics for abdominal pain (especially upper abdominal pain) [AmDragon].

In China it is among the ten highest rated anti-fertility plants. [Vermeulen]

The nature of raw Xiang Fu is to move outwards; processed Xiang Fu enters the Liver and Kidney channels and is used for lower back and leg disorders; Xiang Fu mix-fried with alcohol can free the channels; Xiang Fu mix-fried with vinegar is good for dispersing accumulation; Xiang Fu mix-fried with ginger juice can transform Phlegm-fluids; and charred Xiang Fu is mainly used for uterine bleeding and profuse menstruation. [Li Wei]

Frying it in vinegar enhances the herb’s ability to enter the Liver channel and alleviate pain. Frying it in wine enables it to penetrate all the channels. [ChinHerbInfo]

  1. rotundus is the most frequently prescribed single herb for treating endometriosis in TCM (mean dose of 1.04 g per day and 29.4 days per year). [Su]

Modern research has shown that C. rotundus has an inhibitory effect on both pregnant and non-pregnant uteri in animals. Its rhizomes has a tranquilizing effect. [Li Wei]

Some Unani authors classify C. rotundus as a Mufarrehat (exhilarant), due to its ability to lift the mood and improve depression [Anwar]. Indeed, ethanolic extracts of the plant and some of its fractions have shown antidepressant action, possibly acting via enhancement of binding of endogenous ligands to GABAA-benzodiazepine Receptor Complex [Anwar, Ha, Hao, Lin, Sheik].

C. rotundus contains sesquiterpenes (α-cyperone, β-selinene, cyperene, cyperotundone, patchoulenone, sugeonol, kobusone, and isokobusone) and other terpenes, such as pinene (a monoterpene), and several sesquiterpene derivatives, such as cyperol, isocyperol, and cyperone. The dried rhizome contains about 0.5-1% of volatile oil; the prolonged cooking of the herb will cause loss of some portion of these constituents. [ITMOnline]

The volatile oil extracted from C. rotundus rhizomes has shown oestrogen-like activity in rats [Li Wei, Vermeulen, Wang].

In Siddha medicine, the tuber paste is used to increase the size of the breasts [Saraj].

The leaves of C. rotundus are widely used to flavor food, especially in the Middle East and Southeast Asia. [Wang]



Temperature and taste

The taste of C. rotundus tubers is described differently by the different medicinal traditions; for instance, it is classified as acrid, slightly bitter and slightly sweet in TCM (see [AmDragon, Li Wei]), as bitter and sharp according to Unani (see [Hana]).

A contemporary author, Stephen Facciola, describes the taste of the fresh tuber as resembling that of ‘Vicks VapoRub’5, and becoming milder after drying. [Facciola]

Surely the taste of C. rotundus tuberlets can be described more completely as pungent, aromatic, bitter and slightly sweet (due to starch).

The temperature is neutral according to TCM [AmDragon, Li Wei], hot and dry in the second degree according to John Gerard [Gerard], hot and dry in the third degree in Unani-Tibb [Hana], or simply hot and dry according to Pietro Andrea Mattioli, which reports from Plinius: “the roots of Cyperus, which are in great use, have the virtue of heating and drying without any mordacity”. Similarly, Castore Durante: “It is fragrant, and has the ability to heat and dry without any mordacity; it corroborates, astringes, incides and is aperient” [Durante]





Tissue phases



Actions and indications

Humoral actions

Being aromatic, pungent, sweet and bitter, the tubers of C. rotundus have a complex activity. The pungency is responsible for their ability to “put in motion” (heat, blood, body fluids and so on) and to resolve tension stagnation, and, together with the sweetness, also supplements tension in case of deficiency. Their bitterness together with their sweetness makes them able to supplement the phlegm and (also thanks to their warm nature) the blood without causing stagnation, and, at the same time, to stimulate the elimination of perverse humors (nutritive and alterative properties).



According to David Frawley and Vasant Lad, C. rotundus mainly acts on the digestive system, the circulatory system and the female reproductive organs. [Frawley]

According to TCM, the drug enters the Liver, San Jiao [AmDragon, Li Wei], Gallbladder, (Stomach) [AmDragon] meridians.


Clinical actions

Alterative, analeptic, analgesic, anthelminthic, antidepressant, antidiarrheal, antidysenteric, anti-inflammatory, anti-itching, antipyretic, antirheumatic, antispasmodic, astringent, carminative, cicatrizing, deobstruent, desiccative, diaphoretic, digestant (digests undigested material), digestive (increases the digestive power), diuretic, emmenagogue, galactagogue, hypotensive, lithontryptic, nootropic, orexigenic, stimulant, stomachic, thirst reliever, tonic (brain, heart, nervous system, stomach), vasodilator, vermicide, vulnerary.


Principal actions

Alterative. [Frawley, Hana]

Analeptic6 [Bellakhdar, Durante, Mattioli]:

  • Liter.: “They are indicated for weaklings, asthenics, convalescents and women who want to gain weight.” [Bellakhdar]

Analgesic. [Imam]

Antidepressant. [Anwar, Ha, Hao, Lin, Sheik].

Antidiarrheal, antidysenteric. [Imam, Tyagi, Venkatasubramanian]

Anthelminthic. [Frawley, Imam, Nalini, Samraj, Tyagi, Venkatasubramanian]

Anti-inflammatory. [Imam]

Anti-itching. [Venkatasubramanian]

Antipyretic. [Hana, Tyagi, Venkatasubramanian]

Antirheumatic. [Imam]

Antispasmodic. [Frawley]

Astringent. [Frawley, Hana, Samraj, Tyagi, Venkatasubramanian]

Carminative. [Frawley, Hana, Imam]

Deobstruent. [Hana]

Desiccative. [Hana]

Diaphoretic. [Hana]

Digestant (digests undigested material). [Tyagi, Venkatasubramanian]

Digestive (increases the digestive fire). [Tyagi, Venkatasubramanian]

Diuretic. [Durante, Hana, Imam, Mattioli]

Emmenagogue. [Durante, Hana, Frawley, Imam, Mattioli]

Galactagogue [Imam, Jebasingh, Sala, Vermeulen]:

  • Increases and purifies breast milk. [Jebasingh, Nalini]
  • Fresh tubers are applied to the breast (as a paste or warm plaster). [Imam, Nalini]

Hypotensive. [Imam, Sivapalan, Tyagi]

Lithontryptic. [Durante, Mattioli, Sivapalan, Vermeulen]

Nootropic [Bellakhdar, Dhar, Hana, Kandikattu]:

  • Memory enhancer. [Hana]
  • Liter.: “They are also fed to students to improve their memory and boost their intelligence.” [Bellakhdar]

Orexigenic (Ayurveda: rocaka), appetizer. [Hana, Samraj, Tyagi, Venkatasubramanian]

Stimulant. [Frawley, Imam]

Stomachic. [Imam, Samraj]

Thirst reliever. [Tyagi, Venkatasubramanian]

Tonic [Hana, Vermeulen]:

  • Brain tonic. [Hana]
  • Heart tonic. [Hana]
  • Nervous system tonic. [Hana, Vermeulen]
  • Gastric tonic. [Hana]

Vasodilator. [Hana]

Vermicide. [Hana]

Vulnerary, cicatrizing (external use) [Durante, Hana, Mattioli]:

  • Liter.: “This is dried up, and sprinkled, ground into flour, in the corrosive sores of the mouth.” (Dioscoride, v. [Durante, Mattioli])


Specific indications


  • Depression, melancholy. [AmDragon, Anwar, Ha, Hao, Lin, Sheik]
  • Irritability. [AmDragon]



  • Fever [Imam, Saraj, Tyagi, Venkatasubramanian]; chronic fever [Frawley]; intermittent fever, malaria [Hana, Imam, Nalini, Tyagi, Vermeulen].
  • Inflammation, burning sensation [Tyagi, Venkatasubramanian]:
    • Hernia pain. [Wang]
    • Chest pain. [Nalini]
    • Rheumatoid arthritis. [Nalini]
  • Candida. [Frawley]
  • Cancer. [Vermeulen]
    • Cervical cancer. [Vermeulen]
  • Leprosy. [Sala, Saraj, Wang]


Nervous system

  • Epilepsy. [Hana, Sala, Saraj, Vermeulen]
  • Headache. Hana]


Urinary system

  • Dropsy. [Durante, Mattioli]
  • Kidney stones [Durante, Mattioli, Sivapalan, Vermeulen], bladder stones [Sala, Vermeulen].
  • Strangury. [Hana]
  • Burning micturition. [Nalini]


Respiratory system

  • Cough. [Durante, Vermeulen]
  • Asthma. [Nalini]
  • Bronchitis. [Nalini, Sala, Vermeluen]


Cardio-circulatory system

  • Palpitations. [Hana]
  • High blood pressure [Imam, Sivapalan, Tyagi]:
    • Liter.: “Musta has hemodynamic properties that help optimize blood flow and stimulate respiration. Researchers also confirmed its hypotensive effect, showing that alcoholic extract of musta can bring about a persistent yet gradual reduction in blood pressure.” [Sivapalan]


Digestive system

  • Epigastric and hypochondriac distention and pain (TCM: Liver and Stomach Qi stagnation). [AmDragon, Li Wei]
    • Abdominal pain (especially upper abdominal pain). [AmDragon]
    • Distension and fullness in the stomach and abdomen, distension and pain in the hypochondrium. [Li Wei]
      • Liter.: “abdominal fullness and distention, rib-side distention and pain, no pleasure in eating, and oppression in the chest with a liking for long exhalation” [Shu-de]
    • Flatulence. [Hana]
    • Spasms. [Hana]
  • Diarrhea, dysentery. [Frawley, Imam, Nalini, Saraj, Shinde, Tyagi, Venkatasubramanian]
  • Cholera. [Shinde]
  • Indigestion. [Frawley, Tyagi, Venkatasubramanian, Vermeulen]
  • Helminthiasis, parasites. [Frawley, Imam, Nalini, Samraj, Tyagi, Venkatasubramanian]
  • Anorexia, loss of appetite or interest for food (Ayurveda: aruchi) [Venkatasubramanian]; orexigenic [Tyagi].
  • Gastric weakness, malabsorption. [Frawley, Hana]
  • Gastric mucus. [Hana]
  • Nausea. [Hana]
  • Vomiting. [Saraj, Shinde, Vermeulen]
  • Halitosis. [Hana]
  • Hemorrhoids. [Hana]
  • Hyperdipsia (excessive thirst) [Vermeulen]; thirst reliever [Tyagi, Venkatasubramanian]; polydipsia in diabetes [Nalini].
  • Obesity, hyperlipidemia. [Hana, Imam, Nalini, Tyagi]



  • Sluggish liver. [Frawley]
  • Janundice. [Hana]
  • Hepatitis (in formulas). [Parvez, Varma, Xu]


Female sex organs

  • Dysmenorrhea or irregular menstruation [AmDragon, Frawley, Nalini]
    • with irritability, and epigastric and hypochondriac distention. [AmDragon]
    • with scanty bleeding. [AmDragon]
      • Liter.: “When treating menstrual dysfunction, Xiang fu is preferred when there is scanty bleeding, while Mei gui hua (Rosae Rugosae Flos) is more ideal for excessive bleeding.” (Bensky/Gamble) [ChinHerbInfo]
    • Endometriosis (also as a simple). [Su]
    • Distension and pain in the breasts (TCM: Liver depression and Qi stagnation). [Li Wei]
    • Agalactia [Sala, Vermeulen], oligogalactia (galactagogue) [Imam, Jebasingh].


External use

  • Ulcers [Mattioli, Nalini], mouth ulcers [Mattioli]:
    • Liter.: “They are wonderfully beneficial to ulcers which, being too moist, heal with difficulty” (Plinio; v. [Mattioli])
  • Scorpion sting. [Durante, Hana, Mattioli]


Parts used and their collection

For medicinal use in China, the underground portion is collected in autumn, cooked for a short time in boiling water or steamed, with the fibrous roots burnt off; the rhizomes are sliced in half down the center, and dried in the sun. [ITMOnline]


Preparation and dosage

Purple nutsedge can be taken as a powder (Ayurveda: 250 mg to 1 g [Frawley]), as a decoction (TCM: 6-14g, being careful not to boil it for too long to avoid loss of essential oil [AmDragon, Li Wei]; Ayurveda: low simmer [Frawley]; Unani: 3.5-4.5g [Hana]), or as a tincture (2-4ml [AmDragon]).

According to TCM:

  • processed Cyperus (Zhi Xiang Fu) is most effective at dredging the Liver and alleviating pain.
  • Black Cyperus (Hei Xiang Fu) is able to enter the Liver Blood level to harmonize Blood and stop bleeding to treat irregular menstrual bleeding.
  • Dry-fried Cyperus (Chao Xiang Fu) regulates pain due to Qi stagnation.
  • Four (substance) Prepared Cyperus (Si Zhi Xiang Fu) is less likely to exhaust Qi and dry the Yin and Yang fluids. It is better able to promote the flow of Qi, unblock the collaterals, reduce accumulation and alleviate pain to treat deficient patients with pathogenic obstruction. [AmDragon]


Contraindications and collateral effects

C. rotundus is a safe and effective herb that is also used as food. In an experiment, rats were able to tolerate feeding with a mixture containing up to 25% of the herb, but when the proportion was increased to 30-50%, growth was inhibited. [Li Wei]

The LD50 (acute toxicity) of alcoholic extracts of C. rotundus administered via intraperitoneal route in mice has been reported to vary within a wide range of values, e.g., from 240 mg/kg [Pal] to abt. 1500mg/kg [Li Wei].

As for the oral administration, acute toxicity tests performed on rats and mice with single doses of up to 5,000 mg/kg of the ethanol extract of C. rotundus rhizome did not cause any mortality or evident signs of toxicity. In a subacute toxicity test, the administration of the ethanol extract of the rhizomes of C. rotundus at a dose of 1,000 mg/kg daily over 14 days did not cause mortality, behavioral changes, or difference in body weight gain with respect to the control group. Another sub-chronic toxicity study revealed that food and water consumption and body weight of animals didn’t vary significantly, but the hematological parameters showed an increase in WBC count and hemoglobin level. [Dhar, Jebasingh, Nidugala, Thanabhorn]

Although some authors report that C. rotundus is employed in the treatment of vomiting of pregnancy (e.g., [Shinde]) and “to treat any antepartum or postpartum pathocondition” [Shu-de], some studies report that the plant extracts exhibited inhibitory effects against fetal growth of rats and mice during pregnancy [Hendry, Nurcahyani]. Moreover, due to estrogen-like activity of its essential oil and its action upon uterine mucous membrane, it is contraindicated (or at least it must be used with caution) during pregnancy (see also [AmDragon]).

Being astringent, it should be used with caution in people with constipation. [AmDragon, Frawley]

Since it may increase vata when used in excess, it should be used with caution also in people with high vata. [Frawley]

Moreover, according to TCM, C. rotundus is contraindicated in case of:

  • Qi Deficiency without stagnation [AmDragon, Li Wei]
  • Yin Deficiency with Heat signs [AmDragon, Li Wei]
  • Heat in the Blood. [AmDragon]



C. rotundus has not been subjected to homeopathic proving.



Cyperus esculentus L.

Cyperus esculentus L. (also known as yellow nutsedge) also produces small tubers, known as tigernuts, chufa (Spanish) or xufa (Catalan). Due to their sweet and slightly aromatic taste, the tuberlets are mainly used as food, either raw or cooked. They are also use to make a vegetable milk called orchata/orxata in Spanish/Catalan.

Besides that, tigernuts are also endowed with medicinal properties. They activate blood circulation, favor weight loss, and are considered aphrodisiac, galactogen, spermatogen, carminative, diuretic, stimulant and tonic. They can be used in case of flatulence, indigestion, diarrhea, dysentery and excessive thirst [Bellakhdar, Sabo].

According to John Gerard, the vegetable milk prepared with tigernuts “mundifies the brest and lungs” (so it is indicated for cough) and is also good “against the heate and sharpenesse of the vrine”. The tigernuts “are somewhat windy.” [Gerard]

C. esculentus has not been subjected to homeopathic proving.


Cyperus longus L.

Cyperus longus L., also known as English galingale due to the appearance of the rhizome (similar to true galangal) and its aromatic flavor, does not have underground tubers but rather a horizontal rhizome. It has a pungent flavor and its odor, which is accentuated by dry storage, is reminiscent of nard and violet. [Bellakhdar]

For this reason it was once used as a condiment in soups, pâtés and desserts and as a substitute for ginger and true galangal. The stem of the plant gives off the same smell, but less pronounced. The rhizome is also used in perfumery. [Batelli, Bellakhdar, Vermeulen]

Due to its smell, in Morocco the drug is said to keep evil spirits and bad luck away. [Bellakhdar]

The rhizome is considered an aromatic tonic, a stomachic, an emmenagogue, and a diuretic serviceable in the first stages of dropsy [Batelli, Grieve]. It is also “used by those with mouth ulcers, or bad teeth to strengthen the gums and correct the bad smell.” [Farina]

John Gerard and Pietro Andrea Mattioli write about both C. rotundus and C. longus, not mentioning any specific difference between the two plants with respect to the medicinal actions. The authors report that both are diuretic and emmenagogue, useful in case of urinary stones and dysmenorrhea, and are also able to treat the sting of scorpions and the bites of serpents and to heal running ulcers of mouth, genitals and buttocks. [Gerard, Mattioli]

According to Jan Scholten it is able to treat giddiness, mouth ulcers, abdomen flatulence and colic, dropsy, water retention, and to strengthen the bowels. [Scholten]

Gerard also reports that, according to Jean Fernel (Fernelius), “it increaseth bIoud by warming the body, and maketh good digestion; wonderfully refreshing the spirits, and exhilerating the minde, comforting the senses, and encreasing their liuelinesse, restoring the colour decayed, and making a sweet breath.” [Gerard]

C. longus has not been subjected to a true homeopathic proving.



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[ITMOnline] (Retrieved: 2023-03-14)


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1. See Notes on humors.

2. Nagarmotha and nagarmusta are common names shared with another sedge, Cyperus scariosus R. Br., also used in medicine, which properties are quite similar to those of C. rotundus.

3. The term depression, used here, refers to stagnation of circulation.

4. Hernial and genitourinary disorders.

5. Probably also due to the peppery aroma imparted by rotundone, a sesuiterpene contained in the essential oil of C. rotundus tubers.

6. CNS stimulant which is able, in particular, to provide a transient stimulus to the cardiovascular system and/or the respiratory system.


Featured image from [Kadavoor].


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